Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn. 

Clinical presentation

Broadly, congenital cardiovascular anomalies can be clinically divided into:

Depending on the lesion and its severity, patients may be asymptomatic or conversely, may present with rapidly deteriorating congestive cardiac failure.


These defects as a group have a heterogeneous aetiology with many resulting from an interplay between both genetic and environmental factors.


A list of anomalies and their approximate occurrences (as a percentage of all congenital cardiac disease) are given below:

Other valvular anomalies

Percentages may not necessary add up to a 100 due to overlap and simultaneous occurrence of abnormalities.


Congenital cardiac anomalies can be found with many aneuploidic conditions which include:

Congenital heart disease

There is more than one way to present the variety of congenital heart diseases. Whichever way they are categorised, it is helpful to have a working understanding of normal and fetal circulation, as well as an understanding of the segmental approach to imaging in congenital heart disease.

Share article

Article information

rID: 1159
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Congenital cardiac abnormalities
  • Congenital cardiac anomalies
  • Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads

Cases and figures

  • Case 1: Ebstein anomaly
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 2: ventricular septal defect
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 3: atrioventricular septal defect
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 4: tetralogy of Fallot
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 5: atrial septal defect
    Drag here to reorder.
  • TGA
    Case 6: transposition of great arteries
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Case 8: TAPVR
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.

     Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

     Thank you for updating your details.