Congenital infections (mnemonic)
Citation, DOI & article data
The group of the most common congenital infections are referred to by the mnemonic TORCH or STORCH. They usually cause mild maternal morbidity but are related to serious fetal consequences 4.
In cases where no serological, microbiological or immunological evidence of infection can be identified the term pseudo-TORCH has been used 5.
- T: toxoplasmosis
- O: other (e.g. syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19)
- R: rubella
- C: cytomegalovirus (CMV) - most common
- H: herpes simplex virus (HSV)
There is a variation of this mnemonic that includes in utero syphilis infection:
- 1. O'Brien W, O'brien WT, Sr. Top 3 Differentials in Radiology, A Case Review. Thieme Medical Pub. (2009) ISBN:1604062266. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Kinney JS, Kumar ML. Should we expand the TORCH complex? A description of clinical and diagnostic aspects of selected old and new agents. Clin Perinatol. 1988;15 (4): 727-44. - Pubmed citation
- 3. Blickman JG, Parker BR, Barnes PD. Pediatric radiology, the requisites. Mosby Inc. (2009) ISBN:0323031250. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Stegmann BJ, Carey JC. TORCH Infections. Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections. Curr Womens Health Rep. 2002;2 (4): 253-8. Pubmed citation
- 5. Patnaik A, Mishra SS, Das S. Extensive intracranial calcification of pseudo-TORCH syndrome with features of Dandy-Walker malformation. (2017) Asian journal of neurosurgery. 12 (3): 541-543. doi:10.4103/1793-5482.145162 - Pubmed