Congenital scoliosis

Last revised by Yahya Baba on 8 Sep 2021

Congenital scoliosis refers to scoliosis resulting from a congenital abnormality of the vertebra, e.g. a segmentation or fusion defect. 


There are several definitions of congenital scoliosis. Some authors include neurological congenital causes. In this article, our focus will only be on bony congenital causes.

Radiographic features

Congenital scoliosis will often have a focal curve that doesn't fit into the pattern of an idiopathic (S-shaped) or neuromuscular (C-shaped) curve. 

Vertebral body segmentation and fusion defects will be visible on plain radiography. CT will usually be able to offer more detail of exact fusion patterns. Posterior element abnormalities (including fusion) will be most accurately depicted on CT.

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