Coracoid process fractures are an uncommon type of scapular fracture. They do not often occur in isolation and are often associated with acromial, clavicular, or scapular fracture, as well as humeral head dislocation.
In general, the coracoid process tends to fracture at its base and be minimally displaced. They have been divided into two types:
- type I: fracture proximal to the coracoclavicular ligament
- type II: fracture distal to the coracoclavicular ligament
Coracoid fractures represent <<1% of all fractures and 2-13% of scapular fractures 1.
Treatment and prognosis
Since the coracoid process is important as a stabiliser for many shoulder movements, surgical management may be necessary for displaced fractures to avoid a painful nonunion 2.
- the physis at the tip of the coracoid normally fuses at 18-25 years old
- the physis at the base of the coracoid normally fuses by age 14-16 years old, but before this time it extends into the superior glenoid and can mimic a fracture
- 1. Ada JR, Miller ME. Scapular fractures. Analysis of 113 cases. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1991; (269): 174-80. Pubmed citation
- 2. Hill BW, Jacobson AR, Anavian J et-al. Surgical management of coracoid fractures: technical tricks and clinical experience. J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28 (5): e114-22. doi:10.1097/01.bot.0000435632.71393.bb - Pubmed citation