Coracoid process fracture
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Coracoid process fractures are an uncommon type of scapular fracture. They do not often occur in isolation and are often associated with acromial, clavicular, or other scapular fractures, as well as glenohumeral dislocation or acromioclavicular joint injury.
Coracoid fractures represent <1% of all fractures and ~7.5% (range 2-13%) of scapular fractures 1.
In general, the coracoid process tends to fracture at its base and be minimally displaced. They have been divided into two types:
type I: fracture proximal to the coracoclavicular ligament
type II: fracture distal to the coracoclavicular ligament
Treatment and prognosis
Since the coracoid process is important as a stabilizer for many shoulder movements, surgical management may be necessary for displaced fractures to avoid a painful nonunion 2.
the physis at the tip of the coracoid normally fuses at 18-25 years old
the physis at the base of the coracoid normally fuses by age 14-16 years old, but before this time it extends into the superior glenoid and can mimic a fracture
- 1. Ada JR, Miller ME. Scapular fractures. Analysis of 113 cases. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 1991; (269): 174-80. Pubmed citation
- 2. Hill BW, Jacobson AR, Anavian J et-al. Surgical management of coracoid fractures: technical tricks and clinical experience. J Orthop Trauma. 2014;28 (5): e114-22. doi:10.1097/01.bot.0000435632.71393.bb - Pubmed citation
- 3. Dyan V. Flores, Paola Kuenzer Goes, Catalina Mejía Gómez, Darwin Fernández Umpire, Mini N. Pathria. Imaging of the Acromioclavicular Joint: Anatomy, Function, Pathologic Features, and Treatment. (2020) RadioGraphics. 40 (5): 1355-1382. doi:10.1148/rg.2020200039 - Pubmed