Radiopaedia Courses 25% Discount in response to COVID-19 ends on October 31 EXPLORE OUR COURSES


Dr Daniel J Bell et al.

Costochondritis (rare plural: costochondritides) is a common self-limiting painful inflammation of multiple costochondral junctions and/or the costosternal articulation. There is usually a distinct absence of swelling and chest wall palpation usually reproduces the pain. 

It is important to not conflate/confuse this diagnosis with Tietze syndrome, which is a different, rarer, condition 1,2.

  • chest wall pain: sharp, aching or like a heavy weight
  • pain is localized to multiple costochondral junctions
    • often second to fifth junctions, in particular, ribs 3 and 4
      • any of the seven costochondral junctions and/or costosternal joints may be affected
    • commonly unilateral
    • worsened by upper body motion, deep inspiration and exercise
  • affected joints are tender on physical exam
  • no visible/palpable swelling of the involved joints

In patients older than 35 years it is pertinent to rule out more serious causes of chest wall pain, such as ischemic cardiac disease, which may occasionally present with chest wall tenderness 1,3.

The pathogenesis of costochondritis remains unclear, and postulated mechanisms include dysfunction of neurogenic and/or musculoskeletal structures 3.

In the majority of cases, costochondritis is a self-limiting condition, with resolution in weeks to months. And in general, analgesia to control the pain suffices, e.g. NSAIDs or acetaminophen. Clearly avoiding any activities that aggravate/produce the symptoms is sensible. Rarely an image-guided corticosteroid injection of the affected joint(s) might be needed 1.

Occasionally the condition might rumble on for up to a year 1.

Historically, costochondritis has been known as costosternal syndrome, parasternal chondrodynia or anterior chest wall syndrome. Also, whilst strictly correct, the term costosternitis (plural: costosternitides) is never seen.

Article information

rID: 74218
System: Chest
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Costal chondritis
  • Costosternal syndrome
  • Anterior chest wall syndrome
  • Parasternal chondrodynia
  • Costochondritis (CC)
  • Costosternitides
  • Costosternitis
  • Costochondritides

ADVERTISEMENT: Supporters see fewers/no ads

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.