Craniovertebral junction anomalies

Craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies can be congenital, developmental or due to malformation secondary to any acquired disease process. These anomalies can lead to cranial nerve compression, vertebral artery compression and obstructive hydrocephalus.


 The cranio-vertebral junction is formed by the occipital condyles, atlas (C1), axis (C2) vertebrae and their articulations. Any process which can give rise to  malformation of these structures, may result in CVJ anomaly. It can be due to congenital, developmental or acquired cause. 

On this basis of aetiology CVJ malformations can be classified as:

Congenital anomalies and malformations
Malformations of the occipital sclerotome
Malformations of atlas vertebra
Malformation of axis and odontoid process
  • atlanto-axial fusion
  • persistent ossiculum terminale
  • os odontoideum
  • odontoid dysplasia
Developmental and acquired malformations
Malformations at foramen magnum
Atlanto-axial instability
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Article information

rID: 31257
Section: Gamuts
Tag: pm
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Craniovertebral junction anomaly
  • Craniocervical junction anomalies
  • Craniocervical junction anomaly
  • Craniocervical junction abnormalities
  • Craniovertebral junction abnormalities

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