Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis (CV) is a form of immune mediated primary vasculitis involving small to medium sized vessels. It may involve multiple organs and can have a range of clinical presentations.
Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins which precipitate when serum is incubated at a temperature lower than the body temperature. Approximately half of patients with cryoglobulinemia have clinical manifestations of systemic vasculitis caused by small-vessel damage as a result of deposition of immune complexes on small vessel walls and following complex activation.
There are three main types of cryoglobulinemia which are grouped based on the type of antibody produced:
- type I:
- type II:
- type III:
types II and III are also referred to as mixed cryoglobulinemia.
type I is most often related to cancer of the blood (b cell lymphoproliferative disorders) or immune systems.
- 1. Ha HK, Lee SH, Rha SE et-al. Radiologic features of vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. Radiographics. 2000;20 (3): 779-94. doi:10.1148/radiographics.20.3.g00mc02779 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Cacoub P, Comarmond C, Domont F et-al. Cryoglobulinemia Vasculitis. Am. J. Med. 2015;128 (9): 950-5. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2015.02.017 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Ferri C, Mascia MT. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2006;18 (1): 54-63. Pubmed citation
- 4. Cattaneo R, Fenini MG, Facchetti F. The cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Ric Clin Lab. 1987;16 (2): 327-33. Pubmed citation
- 5. Chung MP, Yi CA, Lee HY et-al. Imaging of pulmonary vasculitis. Radiology. 2010;255 (2): 322-41. doi:10.1148/radiol.10090105 - Pubmed citation
- 6. Zaidan M, Mariotte E, Galicier L, Arnulf B, Meignin V, Vérine J, Mahr A, Azoulay E. Vasculitic emergencies in the intensive care unit: a special focus on cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Annals of intensive care. 2 (1): 31. doi:10.1186/2110-5820-2-31 - Pubmed
- 7. Diaz J, Calamia KT, Lee AS. Pulmonary vasculitis in the intensive care unit. Journal of intensive care medicine. 26 (2): 88-104. doi:10.1177/0885066610384551 - Pubmed