There are a number of underlying causes, and thus no specific demographic is affected.
The diagnosis can be confirmed by identifying beta-2 transferrin in the fluid.
- labyrinthine malformation
- abnormal development of facial canal
- bony and dural defects along the temporal bone
- aberrantly distributed arachnoid granulations
- most often due to transverse fractures of the temporal bone
Findings on CT cisternography include:
- soft tissue mass with adjacent bony defect
- leakage of contrast into middle ear cavity
- bony defects
- labyrinthine malformations
- fistulous tracts
- enlarged labyrinthine facial nerve canal
- CSF signal intensity in the bony defects
- CSF signal intensity in middle ear cavity
- associated empty sella
- dural enhancement after gadolinium administration
In complex cases nuclear cisternography may be performed.
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