There are a number of underlying causes, and thus no specific demographic is affected.
The diagnosis can be confirmed by identifying beta-2 transferrin in the fluid.
- aberrantly distributed arachnoid granulations
- most often due to transverse fractures of the temporal bone
Findings on CT cisternography include:
- soft tissue mass with adjacent bony defect
- leakage of contrast into middle ear cavity
- bony defects
- labyrinthine malformations
- fistulous tracts
- enlarged labyrinthine facial nerve canal
- CSF signal intensity in the bony defects
- CSF signal intensity in middle ear cavity
- associated empty sella
- dural enhancement after gadolinium administration
In complex cases nuclear cisternography may be performed.
- 1. Pachauri R, Nagaonkar S, Kirtane MV. Spontaneous CSF otorrhoea - Presenting as conductive deafness. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;54 (1): 51-4. Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 2. Lloyd KM, DelGaudio JM, Hudgins PA. Imaging of skull base cerebrospinal fluid leaks in adults. Radiology. 2008;248 (3): 725-36. Radiology (full text) - doi:10.1148/radiol.2483070362 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Petrus LV, Lo WW. Spontaneous CSF otorrhea caused by abnormal development of the facial nerve canal. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999;20 (2): 275-7. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Prichard CN, Isaacson B, Oghalai JS et-al. Adult spontaneous CSF otorrhea: correlation with radiographic empty sella. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134 (5): 767-71. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2006.01.002 - Pubmed citation