Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that affects the exocrine function of the lungs, liver, pancreas, and small bowel resulting in progressive disability and multi-system failure. This article is a general discussion of the disease. Each organ system will be discussed separately.
- pulmonary manifestations of CF
- abdominal manifestations of CF
- head and neck manifestations of CF
- musculoskeletal manifestations of CF
Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease affecting European population with an incidence of approximately 1:2000-3500 live births 5.
The diagnosis may be suspected antenatally due to the presence of echogenic bowel on antenatal ultrasound, or due to genetic testing of the parents.
In many countries, the presence of cystic fibrosis is tested for immediately after birth with a sweat test (positive sweat chloride test Cl >60 mEq/L) 5. Alternatively, genetic testing is also available.
The diagnosis usually becomes evident in infancy, with presentations including:
Cystic fibrosis is due to a defect of the CFTR gene located on chromosome 7q31.2. This gene encodes for a transmembrane protein known as cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) which is responsible for regulating chloride passage across cell membranes. here are at least 6 classes of mutations, the commonest being ∂F508 (66-70%) 6.
In skin, unlike elsewhere, CFTR is responsible for the influx of chloride and increases the sodium channel activity, thus controlling the influx of sodium. The net effect of a normally functioning CFTR is to resorb sodium and chloride. In CF patients, this is lost and therefore the characteristic increase in salt content of sweat (thus the sweat test).
In tissues other than skin, CFTR is responsible for efflux of chloride and inhibition of the sodium channel's activity which controls the influx of sodium. Therefore, under normal circumstances, salt and chloride remain in the lumen and keep water there osmotically. In CF patients, too little chloride is pumped out, too much sodium is reabsorbed with osmotic re-absorption of water from the lumen. The result is iso-osmotic, but low volume, secretions, which tend to dry out, or be thick as they still contain all the other constituents.
Treatment and prognosis
Early institution of multi-disciplinary treatment is essential and responsible for the dramatic increase in life expectancy, now reaching 40 or more years.
Treatments options include 7:
- prolonged courses of antibiotics
- oral and inhaled corticosteroids
- pancreatic enzyme supplementation: required in 85% cases
- vitamin supplementation
- lung transplantation
Both transplanted and non-transplanted CF patients are at increased risk of some malignancies 8:
- gastrointestinal malignancy, in particular oesophageal, gastric, small bowel, and colorectal cancer
- gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tree
- testicular cancer
- 1. Abbas AK, Kumar V, Fausto N et-al. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, With Student Consult Online Access. W B Saunders Co. (2010) ISBN:1416031219. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Brant WE, Helms CA. Fundamentals of diagnostic radiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:0781765188. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. AG SK, Karger. Cystic Fibrosis, A State-Of-The-Art Series. S Karger Pub. (2001) ISBN:3805572247. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Meyer CA, White CS, Sherman KE. Diseases of the hepatopulmonary axis. Radiographics. 20 (3): 687-98. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 5. Maffessanti M, Polverosi R, Dalpiaz G et-al. Diffuse lung diseases, clinical features, pathology, HRCT. Springer Verlag. (2006) ISBN:8847004292. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 6. 6.Robbins SL, Kumar V, Abbas AK et-al. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. W.B. Saunders Company. (2010) ISBN:1416031219. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 7. Warrell DA. Oxford textbook of medicine, Sections 18-33. Oxford University Press, USA. (2005) ISBN:0198569785. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 8. Maisonneuve P, Marshall BC, Knapp EA et-al. Cancer risk in cystic fibrosis: a 20-year nationwide study from the United States. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2013;105 (2): 122-9. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs481 - Pubmed citation