Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the nasolacrimal sac related to impairment in the lacrimal drainage system and superimposed infection.
Dacryocystitis has a bimodal distribution: neonates due to congenital abnormalities and when acquired, usually affect individuals older than 40 years of age.
Dacryocystitis is typically characterized by epiphora, erythema and edema in the region of the medial epicanthus and lacrimal puncta as the result of an infection of the nasolacrimal sac. There is often mucopurulent discharge from the puncta and associated conjunctivitis.
Obstruction or stricture of the nasolacrimal drainage is an underlying factor.
Most cases in infants represent congenital abnormalities, such as incomplete canalization or atresia of the nasolacrimal duct, dacryocystocele and facial clefts. Whereas in adults it is usually the result of an acquired abnormality, including:
- anatomic variation
- enlarged turbinates
- nasal septal deviation
- sinonasal carcinoma
- nasolacrimal duct carcinoma
- foreign bodies
The microbiology of dacryocystitis mimics normal conjunctival flora in most instances.
In chronic dacryocystitis, there may be superinfection with fungal species.
Diagnosis is usually made clinically, however imaging may help to exclude complications. CT findings include well-circumscribed round lesions with peripheral enhancement around the inner canthus, with adjacent soft tissue thickening and fat stranding,
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment is usually with antibiotics in the acute phase. In some cases, intervention (including external dacryocystorhinostomy) may be necessary.
Chronic dacryocystitis typically requires surgery or an interventional procedure.
- abscess formation
- fistula formation
- orbital cellulitis
Differentials on imaging include:
- 1. Asheim J, Spickler E. CT demonstration of dacryolithiasis complicated by dacryocystitis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 26 (10): 2640-1. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Lebedis CA, Sakai O. Nontraumatic orbital conditions: diagnosis with CT and MR imaging in the emergent setting. Radiographics. 2008;28 (6): 1741-53. Radiographics (full text) - doi:10.1148/rg.286085515 - Pubmed citation