Deductive echocardiography

Last revised by Daniel J Bell on 18 Aug 2021

Deductive echocardiography is a step-by-step approach in diagnosing and differentiating congenital heart disease.

Parameters assessed


Conceptually, the heart is divided into three segments:

  • atria
  • ventricles 
  • great arteries
  • determination of the atrial situs (inferred from features of visceroatrial situs)
  • identification and location of ventricles
    • mitral to semilunar valve continuity
    • fishmouth appearance of mitral valve
    • insertion level of AV valve 
  • recognition of great arteries 
  • arterioventricular connections
  • identification of obstructive lesions
  • identification of cardiovascular shunts
    • right-to-left
    • left-to-right
    • mixed

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