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Demyelination is incorrectly often equated to multiple sclerosis, whereas in reality it is a generic pathological term simply describing, as the word suggests, the loss of normal myelin around axons in the central nervous system. This should be distinguished from dysmyelination where the formation of normal myelin is absent.
Primary demyelinating disorders include:
first symptomatic episode which may or may not progress to MS
multiple sclerosis (MS)
monophasic usually post viral acute demyelination
often considered a secondary form of demyelination
In most cases, toxic and metabolic disease which affect the white matter are considered separately but for the sake of completeness, they are listed below.
sometimes classified as leukodystrophies 2
Although not referred to as demyelination, many processes which cause ischemia lead to demyelination:
- 1. Hesselink J. "Demyelinating diseases of the brain" 
- 2. Cheon JE, Kim IO, Hwang YS et-al. Leukodystrophy in children: a pictorial review of MR imaging features. Radiographics. 22 (3): 461-76. Radiographics (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Kornienko VN, Pronin IN. Diagnostic Neuroradiology. Springer Verlag. (2008) ISBN:3540756523. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon