Dental trauma

Last revised by David Carroll on 23 Mar 2021

Dental trauma is common, affecting up to one-third of the population. While often clinically apparent, they may be overlooked in the setting of severe trauma. 


The maxillary incisors are the most commonly injured tooth. Dental trauma is commonly classified as 1,2:

  • luxation
    • concussion
    • subluxation
    • lateral luxation
    • extrusion
    • intrusion
  • fractures 
    • infraction
    • crown fracture
    • crown-root fracture
    • alveolar bone fracture
  • avulsion


  • aspiration of fragments or avulsed teeth 4
  • damage to permanent dentition (dental trauma involving primary dentition)
    • root resorption
    • hypoplasia
    • discoloration
  • nasal cavity intrusion 3
  • infection

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