dGEMRIC (delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage)
dGEMRIC, or delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage is a technique that can be used quantitatively to assess glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage or qualitatively to asses the overall structures of cartilage. When the technique is adapted and applied to menisci it is called dGEMRIM.
At a time point after an intravenous or intra-articular negatively charged gadolinium agent is injected that allows diffusion of the material to the cartilage, the technique enhances areas of high glycosaminoglycan content. Protocols may vary slightly in terms of precise timing after injection and the exact type of T1 sequences, however, the literature on dGEMRIC used as a quantitative tool is established, with researchers using similar protocols. The technique has been used to asses diseases such as osteoarthritis 1,2 in terms of degeneration or repair of cartilage. The technique is also extremely useful to segment cartilage and menisci on MRI, therefore facilitating 3D modelling, whether through algorithms for 3D rendering or 3D printing.
- 1. Bekkers JE, Bartels LW, Benink RJ, Tsuchida AI, Vincken KL, Dhert WJ, Creemers LB, Saris DB. Delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) can be effectively applied for longitudinal cohort evaluation of articular cartilage regeneration. (2013) Osteoarthritis and cartilage. 21 (7): 943-9. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2013.03.017 - Pubmed
- 2. Jasper van Tiel, Gyula Kotek, Max Reijman, Pieter K. Bos, Esther E. Bron, Stefan Klein, Jan A. N. Verhaar, Gabriel P. Krestin, Harrie Weinans, Edwin H. G. Oei. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the meniscus (dGEMRIM) in patients with knee osteoarthritis: relation with meniscal degeneration on conventional MRI, reproducibility, and correlation with dGEMRIC. (2014) European Radiology. 24 (9): 2261. doi:10.1007/s00330-014-3204-z - Pubmed
- 3. Carl Siversson, Carl‐Johan Tiderius, Paul Neuman, Leif Dahlberg, Jonas Svensson. Repeatability of T1‐quantification in dGEMRIC for three different acquisition techniques: Two‐dimensional inversion recovery, three‐dimensional look locker, and three‐dimensional variable flip angle. (2010) Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 31 (5): 1203. doi:10.1002/jmri.22159 - Pubmed
- 4. Carl J. Tiderius, Lars E. Olsson, Hans de Verdier, Peter Leander, Olle Ekberg, Leif Dahlberg. Gd‐DTPA2–‐enhanced MRI of femoral knee cartilage: A dose‐response study in healthy volunteers. (2001) Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 46 (6): 1067. doi:10.1002/mrm.1300 - Pubmed