Direct digital radiography (DDR) refers to direct digital registration of the image at the detector with no intermediate processing step required to obtain the digital signals as in computed radiography (CR).
There are two primary methods of conversion are indirect and direct:
Indirect conversion is so named because this technique still uses a scintillator to convert x-rays to light before conversion to an electrical charge for subsequent readout.
X-ray photons encounter a Caesium Iodide (CsI) scintillator and are converted to light. The needle-like CsI structure acts to minimise scatter at this step. The light then reaches a low-noise photodiode array and is converted into an electrical charge. Each photodiode represents a single pixel, and each produces an electrical charge that is read out digitally before finally being sent to the image processor 1.
Direct conversion is so named because this technique directly converts the absorbed x-ray into a proportionally sized electrical charge with no intermediate scintillating step.
This technique employs a semiconductor material which produces electron-hole pairs in proportion to the incident x-ray intensity. The most commonly used semiconductor is amorphous selenium (a-Se) 1,2.
- 1. Bushberg JT, editor. The essential physics of medical imaging. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
- 2. Huda W, Slone RM. Review of radiologic physics. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003.
Physics and imaging technology: x-ray
- x-ray production
- x-ray tubes
- tube rating
- interaction with matter
- beam collimators
- air gap technique
- intensifying screen
- x-ray film
- image intensifier
- digital radiography
- digital image
- x-ray artifacts
- radiation units
- radiation safety
- as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)
- radiation protection
- background radiation
- background radiation equivalent time
- deterministic effect
- dose limits
- inverse square law
- lead apron
- radiation damage (biomolecular)
- radiation damage (skin injury)
- stochastic effect
- radiation detectors