Ectopic kidney

Ectopic kidney (or renal ectopia) is a developmental renal anomaly characterised by abnormal anatomical location of one or both of the kidneys.

They can occur in several forms:

The estimated incidence of an ectopic kidney varies by location: 

Patients are most often asymptomatic. Normal pathology (e.g. infection, calculus) can affect ectopic kidneys, leading to non-classical abdominal pain. Ectopic kidneys are also prone to traumatic injury due to their abnormal location in the lower abdomen, pelvis or thorax. 

During normal embryological development, there is cephalic migration of the kidneys to their normal retroperitoneal location and an ectopic location is a result of arrested migration. 

The kidney during its normal ascent, has multiple aorto-illiac branches, which degenerate when the kidney reaches its normal location. Here they develop new renal branches from the aorta. However, during an arrested ascent the ectopic kidney tends to retain some of the older aorto-iliac vessels. 

Associations
Ultrasound 

This is frequently the first modality to diagnose the ectopic kidney, which most often is incidentally detected. 

CT 

Contrast enhanced CT scan depicts the vascular and non vascular anatomy.

IVP and MRI 

May additionally help in functional and structural assessment. 

  • hypertension is more frequently encountered in cases with more than one renal artery. 
  • infection and calculus formation may be more prevalent due to problems with urine drainage
  • if reflux is present then renal failure may result

Treatment options vary based on whether there are symptoms or complications. If an obstruction is present, surgery may be required for correction of the position of the kidney to allow better drainage of urine. In presence of extensive renal damage nephrectomy is indicated. 


Abdominal and pelvic anatomy
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Article Information

rID: 25391
System: Urogenital
Section: Anatomy
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Renal ectopia
  • Renal ectopias
  • Ectopic kidneys

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