Endogenous lipoid pneumonia

Endogenous lipoid pneumonia, also known as idiopathic lipoid pneumonia, is of the of the two types of lipoid pneumonias. It is also sometimes known as “cholesterol pneumonia” or “golden pneumonia”

Please refer to the main article for a broad discussion, including clinical presentation, radiographic features, and treatment and prognosis. 

With lipoid pneumonia in general, there is the classic "exogenous type" most commonly seen in people who aspirate mineral oil. There is also the lesser known, and actually more common "endogenous type" or "cholesterol pneumonia" that s the result of localised accumulation of lipid laden macrophages within alveolar spaces distal to an obstructed airway.

Its estimated prevalence is thought to be around 1-2.5% of autopsies.

Endogenous lipoid pneumonia occurs from obstruction of the airway which results in the accumulation of cellular breakdown debris, including cholesterol from destroyed alveolar cell walls. These lipids are difficult to digest and the macrophages, which attempt to phagocytose them, accumulate within the alveolar spaces.

Aetiology

The classic scenario is in the setting of an obstruction by a tumour, bronchiolitis obliterans, or after chemotherapy / radiation therapy. Other reported associations include:

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Article information

rID: 27299
System: Chest
Section: Pathology
Tags: refs, cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Endogenous lipoid pneumonias
  • Endogenous lipid pneumonia
  • Endogenous lipid pneumonias
  • Idiopathic lipoid pneumonia

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