Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a procedure combining the range of endoscopy with the diagnostic abilities of ultrasound. EUS is used in the imaging of the upper GI tract and surrounding structures as well as the respiratory tract (where it is referred to as endobronchial ultrasound - EBUS). A high-frequency transducer crystal is used, typically in the range of 12-20 Megahertz.
This article will be focusing on the upper GI use of EUS. For the respiratory tract, please refer to the article on endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS).
Esophagus: in a healthy patient, five layers are seen1:
- innermost layer (hyperechoic): superficial mucosal layer corresponding to the interface of the esophageal lumen and the mucosal layer
- second layer (hypoechoic): mucosal layer
- third layer (hyperechoic): submucosal layer
- fourth layer (hypoechoic): muscularis propria
- fifth layer (hyperechoic): esophageal adventitia
Esophageal cancer: endoscopic ultrasound can be used for local TNM staging of esophageal cancer to determine the local invasion of the tumor through the normal esophagus.
EUS has been shown to be the most sensitivity image modality on the detection of small functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
- 1. Vilgrain V, Mompoint D, Palazzo L et-al. Staging of esophageal carcinoma: comparison of results with endoscopic sonography and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990;155 (2): 277-81. doi:10.2214/ajr.155.2.2115251 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Shunsuke Sugawara, Miyuki Sone, Shinichi Morita, Susumu Hijioka, Yasunari Sakamoto, Masahiko Kusumoto, Yasuaki Arai. Radiologic Assessment for Endoscopic US-guided Biliary Drainage. (2020) RadioGraphics. 40 (3): 667-683. doi:10.1148/rg.2020190158 - Pubmed