Epipericardial fat necrosis
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Epipericardial fat necrosis (also sometimes purely categorized as pericardial fat necrosis or epicardial fat necrosis) is a rare self-limiting cause of acute pleuritic pain in an otherwise healthy individual, without fever or cough. It occurs external to the pericardium.
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The patient presents with acute pleuritic chest pain that may mimic other cardiopulmonary causes. It is a self-limiting pain, ipsilateral to the lesion, which is more commonly on the left side (can be right-sided). The pain may persist for several weeks. Syncope, tachycardia and dyspnea have also been reported. However cough and fever are not seen 4.
On physical examination, a pericardial friction rub may be heard.
Laboratory findings, including inflammatory markers, and ECG are usually normal.
The pathogenesis of pericardial fat necrosis is unknown. Some predisposing factors have been mentioned in the literature:
ischemia due to an acute torsion
high positioned pericardial fat
increased thoracic pressure related to the Valsalva maneuver may increase the capillary pressure, which leads to hemorrhagic necrosis
Typically, the chest radiograph is normal in the first 48-72 hours of the disease. Following on from this a characteristic opacity is always seen 4:
juxtacardiac mass-like opacity near the cardiophrenic angle with or without pleural effusion and ipsilateral to the chest pain
it always lies ventrally and invariably merges imperceptibly with the heart border
ovoid encapsulated mediastinal (pericardial) fatty lesion with soft tissue rim and intrinsic and surrounding soft tissue stranding
thickened adjacent epicardium
a pleural effusion may be present
Findings are similar to that observed with epiploic appendagitis and omental torsion in the peritoneal space.
Findings on MRI have been reported in two patients, with findings reflecting those on CT, i.e. a fatty lesion and internal soft tissue stranding 4.
Treatment and prognosis
Conservative management with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and follow-up is usually performed. It is generally considered self-limiting. Historically, in the pre-CT era, many were removed due to concerns about malignancy 4.
History and etymology
It is thought to have been first described in 1957 by Jackson et al 4,8.
Possible radiographic differential considerations include:
Initial clinical differential diagnoses, when the chest radiograph is normal, include more serious diagnoses that present with acute chest pain:
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