Extensor hallucis longus muscle
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insertion: the dorsal side of the base of the distal phalanx of the 1st toe
action: extends the 1st toe and assists in dorsiflexion
arterial supply: anterior tibial artery
innervation: deep peroneal nerve (L5 - S1)
The muscle inserts at the base and dorsal surface of the distal phalanx of the hallux (1st toe).
As the name implies, the extensor hallucis longus muscle aids in the extension of the hallux at the 1st metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints in addition to supporting foot inversion and dorsiflexion.
Paralysis or weakness of the extensor hallucis longus muscle is a sign of L5 nerve root pathology, a common location for a herniated disc. This type of injury results in constant flexion of the first metatarsal secondary to an unopposed action of the flexor muscles 2.