Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer

Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include 3:

  • an irregular bulge in capsule
  • obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle
  • asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle
  • angulation/step-off appearance to the tumour
  • focal capsular retraction and or thickening
  • broad capsular tumour contact (>10 mm)
  • breach of the capsule with evidence of direct tumour extension

These criteria can be used both in high-resolution transrectal ultrasound / MRI.

MRI is much more superior than transrectal ultrasound, CT and digital rectal examination in detecting extracapsular spread as well as seminal vesicular invasion in prostate cancer.

Criteria for seminal vesicular extension include 3:

  • direct tumour extension into and around the seminal vesicles
  • tumour extension along the ejaculatory ducts, resulting in enlarged T2 hypointense seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts
  • obliteration of vesicoprostatic angle

See also

Prostate pathology
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Article information

rID: 6049
System: Urogenital
Section: Gamuts
Tag: cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Prostate cancer: extracapsular extension
  • Prostate carcinoma: extracapsular extension

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    Case 1: locally progressive tumour
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