Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer

Multiple criteria are used to detect extracapsular extension of prostate cancer. They include 3:

  • an irregular bulge in capsule
  • obliteration of the rectoprostatic angle
  • asymmetry of the neurovascular bundle
  • angulation/step-off appearance to the tumour
  • focal capsular retraction and or thickening
  • broad capsular tumour contact (>10 mm)
  • breach of the capsule with evidence of direct tumour extension

These criteria can be used both in high-resolution transrectal ultrasound / MRI.

MRI is superior to transrectal ultrasound, CT, and digital rectal examination in detecting extracapsular extension as well as seminal vesicular invasion in prostate cancer.

Criteria for seminal vesicular extension include 3:

  • direct tumour extension into and around the seminal vesicles
  • tumour extension along the ejaculatory ducts, resulting in enlarged T2 hypointense seminal vesicles and ejaculatory ducts
  • obliteration of vesicoprostatic angle

See also

Prostate pathology
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Article information

rID: 6049
System: Urogenital
Section: Gamuts
Tag: cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Prostate cancer: extracapsular extension
  • Prostate carcinoma: extracapsular extension

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Cases and figures

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    Case 1: locally progressive tumour
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