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F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most common PET radiotracer.
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The radiopharmaceutical consists of the fluorine-18 radionuclide substituting the hydroxyl group at the C-2 position of glucose. The IUPAC chemical name is 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoroglucose.
F-18 fluoride ion is created in a cyclotron and then converted via an automated chemistry module into F-18 FDG. Specifically, F-18 FDG is produced through a nucleophilic substitution reaction, using the F-18 fluoride by nuclear reaction 18O (p,n) 18F starting from water (H2O) enriched with oxygen-18.
physical half-life: 110 minutes
Physiologic activity is commonly seen in the following organs:
brain (especially in basal ganglia, posterior cingulate cortex and visual cortex) 1
heart (especially left ventricular myocardium)
liver (often used as an internal reference standard on whole body scans)
Other sites of physiologic uptake are variable or less intense:
skeletal muscle (in extremities after strenuous activity, in mouth and larynx after speech or chewing)
brown fat (especially in the neck and mediastinum)
hematopoietic/lymphoid tissue: Waldeyer ring, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow
identification of foci associated with epileptic seizures
evaluation of suspected Alzheimer dementia
cancer staging and surveillance
evaluation of patients with fever of unknown origin
identification of viable and ischemic myocardium
- 1. Berti V, Mosconi L, Pupi A. Brain. PET Clinics. 2014;9(2):129-40. doi:10.1016/j.cpet.2013.10.006 - Pubmed