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At the level of the lower margin of the orbit, the angular vein becomes the facial vein 1. The facial vein commences at the side of the root of the nose and lies behind the facial artery 1. It runs obliquely downward and backwards, beneath the zygomatic muscle and the zygomatic head of the quadratus labii superioris muscle, descending along the anterior border and then on the superficial surface of the masseter 1. It then crosses over the body of the mandible, passes obliquely backwards beneath the platysma and cervical fascia, superficial to the submandibular gland, the digastric muscle and stylohyoid muscle 1.
The facial vein (along with the facial artery) pierces the deep investing fascia of the neck just below the border of the mandible where it unites with the anterior branch of the retromandibular vein to form the common facial vein 1-3.
- 1. Standring S, editor. Gray’s Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. 41st Edition. Elsevier; 2016. ISBN: 9780702052309
- 2. McMinn RMH, editor. Last’s Anatomy Regional and Applied. 9th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1998. ISBN: 9780729537520
- 3. Thorne, editor. Grabb and Smith’s plastic surgery. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lipincott Wiliams & Wilkins; 2007. ISBN: 9780781746984