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Fasciae (or fascias) are connective tissues found below the skin.
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A consensus terminology on the components of fascia is elusive 1. Many anatomy authors in the English language separate the fascia into superficial and deep layers.
Superficial fascia refers to the loose connective tissue layer below the dermis. In British-American nomenclature, such as in Gray's Anatomy, this tissue includes two components, one of mostly adipose tissue and a deeper membranous layer of fibroareolar tissue that may also include vessels, nerves, and even certain cutaneous muscles (e.g. platysma). For example, in the anterior abdominal wall, the former is called Camper fascia and the latter is Scarpa fascia. The Scarpa fascia is continuous with Colles fascia in the perineum.
Deep fascia refers to the denser fibrous connective tissue that envelops the musculature. The deep fascia consists of a peripheral investing layer and a deeper intermuscular network of muscle sheaths and septa that is continuous with the epimysium. Examples include the transversalis fascia in the anterior abdominal wall, the fascia lata in the thigh, and the plantar fascia in the foot.
Because of differences from non-English authorities, the Terminologia Anatomica, the current international standard, abandoned "superficial fascia" in favor of "subcutaneous tissue" or "hypodermis" 2. This terminology is usually consistent with usage by surgeons, such that "fascia" alone refers to the deep fascia 3. Radiologists may choose to follow a similarly simplified terminology because the deep membranous layer of the superficial fascia cannot be adequately resolved on current imaging and the superficial fascia can mostly be referred to as subcutaneous fat 3,4.
Some authorities define a third category, the visceral fascia, as the connective tissue investing/suspending visceral structures and lining body cavities 2. However, these are more commonly known separately by their specialized names, such as the peritoneum, omentum, pericardium, and meninges.
- necrotizing fasciitis
- Fournier gangrene
- plantar fasciitis
- retroperitoneal fasciitis
- nodular fasciitis
- head and neck
- abdomen and pelvis
- 1. Schleip R, Jäger H, Klingler W. What is 'fascia'? A review of different nomenclatures. (2012) Journal of bodywork and movement therapies. 16 (4): 496-502. doi:10.1016/j.jbmt.2012.08.001 - Pubmed
- 2. Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Terminologia Anatomica. (1998) ISBN: 9783131143617
- 3. Hayeri MR, Ziai P, Shehata ML, Teytelboym OM, Huang BK. Soft-Tissue Infections and Their Imaging Mimics: From Cellulitis to Necrotizing Fasciitis. (2016) Radiographics. 36 (6): 1888-1910. doi:10.1148/rg.2016160068 - Pubmed
- 4. Lee S, Joo KB, Song SY. Accurate definition of superficial and deep fascia. (2011) Radiology. 261 (3): 994; author reply 994-5. doi:10.1148/radiol.11111116 - Pubmed