Features include :
- hypertrophy in the neck fat pad (buffalo hump)
- increased fat in the abdominal region (protease paunch)
- loss of fat in the midface and extremities.
Biochemically, these patients have increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and extremely low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.
If left untreated, these patients develop and die of complications of metabolic origin such as cardiovascular diseases or diabetes mellitus. Biochemical features manifest before the clinical pictures become apparent.
For hypertrophy of the fat around the neck consider:
- Madelung disease
- steroid use
- 1. Tierney EP, Hanke CW. "Bullfrog neck," a unique morphologic trait in HIV lipodystrophy: case series and review of the literature. Arch Dermatol. 2010;146 (11): 1279-82. doi:10.1001/archdermatol.2010.341 - Pubmed citation
- 2.Lassalle S, Cervera P, Hofman V et-al. Antiretroviral treatments-related lipodystrophy syndrome: clinico-pathological findings. Ann Pathol. 2006;25 (4): 309-17. Pubmed citation
- 3.Mauss S, Schmutz G. HIV-lipodystrophy syndrome. Med. Klin. (Munich). 2001;96 (7): 391-401. Pubmed citation
- 4.Olczak A. Metabolic disturbances associated with HAART. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;61 (4): 639-46. Pubmed citation
- 5.Vigouroux C, Gharakhanian S, Salhi Y et-al. Adverse metabolic disorders during highly active antiretroviral treatments (HAART) of HIV disease. Diabetes Metab. 1999;25 (5): 383-92. Pubmed citation