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- articulation: ball and socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum
- ligaments: ischiofemoral, iliofemoral, pubofemoral and transverse acetabular ligaments, and the ligamentum teres 1
- movement: thigh flexion and extension, adduction and abduction, internal and external rotation.
- blood supply: branches of the medial and lateral circumflex femoral, and obturator arteries 2
- innervation: femoral, obturator and superior gluteal nerves, and nerve to quadratus femoris 2
The ball and socket articulation allows for a high degree of mobility. In comparison to the shoulder joint it permits less range of movement due to the increased depth and contact area, but displays far more stability. The acetabular labrum increases the depth of the joint 1.
The joint is surrounded by a fibrous capsule, which is attached to the acetabulum, and then attaches to the proximal aspect of the femur 1. Thickenings of this capsule constitute the ischiofemoral, iliofemoral and pubofemoral ligaments.
There are a number of different muscles that permit flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, and internal/external rotation of the hip joint. See: movements of the thigh.
Branches of the medial circumflex femoral, lateral circumflex femoral, obturator (via artery to head of femur), and superior and inferior gluteal arteries supply the joint in adults 2. A branch may also be present in the ligaments teres.