Fetal cardiomegaly (FC) essentially refers to an enlarged fetal heart. It is variably defined with some sources stating the cut off as a fetal cardio-thoracic circumference above two standard deviations 7.
It can arise from a number of situations which include
- congenital cardiac anomalies: particularly
- twin pregnancy related complications: in recipient twin in twin-twin transfusion syndrome
- fetal dilated cardiomyopathies
- due to abnormal shunting
- in association with hydrops fetalis 2: this includes the many causes of hydrops fetalis
- endocardial fibroelastosis
In the vast majority of cases the cardiac enlargement involves the right sided chambers with the right atrium being involved in ~ 90% of cases.
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- 2. Henrich W, Fuchs I, Bührer C et-al. Isolated cardiomegaly in the second trimester as an early sign of fetal hydrops due to intracranial arteriovenous malformation. J Clin Ultrasound. 2003;31 (8): 445-9. doi:10.1002/jcu.10192 - Pubmed citation
- 3. Koven MB, Cohen HL, Goldman MA. Fetal intracranial AVM presenting as enlarged cardiac chamber. J Ultrasound Med. 1992;11 (4): 177. J Ultrasound Med (citation) - Pubmed citation
- 4. Keck C, Wilhelm C, Wellens E et-al. Fetal cerebral AV-malformation and cardiomegaly, diagnostic and therapeutic problems. J Perinat Med. 1998;26 (3): 225-30. - Pubmed citation
- 5. Wuttikonsammakit P, Uerpairojkit B, Tanawattanacharoen S. Causes and consequences of 93 fetuses with cardiomegaly in a tertiary center in Thailand. Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. 2011;283 (4): 701-6. doi:10.1007/s00404-010-1426-0 - Pubmed citation
- 6. Kirkpatrick AD, Podberesky DJ, Gray AE et-al. Best cases from the AFIP: Placental chorioangioma. Radiographics. 27 (4): 1187-90. doi:10.1148/rg.274065207 - Pubmed citation
- 7. Abuhamad A, Chaoui R. A Practical Guide to Fetal Echocardiography, Normal and Abnormal Hearts. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2009) ISBN:0781797578. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon