Fetal hydrocephalus

Fetal hydrocephalus often refers to an extension of fetal ventriculomegaly where the ventricular dilatation is more severe. It is usually defined when the fetal lateral ventricular diameter is greater than 15 mm 1.

The estimated incidence is 0.5-3% per 1000 live births. There may be a very slight increased female predilection 10.

It can be either obstructive or non-obstructive and each can arise from a number aetiologies. It a small proportion of cases it carries a familial X-linked inheritance (congenital X linked hydrocephalus).

Causes
Associations

The vast majority of of conditions are are associated with other intracranial and cranial anomalies 5. The list includes:

See also: congenital syndromes associated with enlarged ventricles.

Antenatal ultrasound

Will demonstrate enlarged ventricles with variable degrees of parenchymal thinning. The choroid may seen floating within the ventricle giving a dangling choroid sign. Often a separation of more than 3 mm between the choroid plexus and the margin of the ventricle in considered abnormal. In some cases, there may also be evidence of macrocephaly.

The overall prognosis with depend in the underlying cause and associated anomalies. Some cases can slowly progress during the fetal period. Antenatal shunting has been considered in a small proportion of selected cases 2.

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Article Information

rID: 13732
Section: Pathology
Tag: cases
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Intra-uterine hydrocephalus
  • Intrauterine hydrocephalus
  • Congenital hydrocephalus
  • Fetal hydrocephaly

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