Citation, DOI & article data
Typically these conditions present with a prodrome which is non-specific but highly suggestive of a viral infection. Symptoms include fever, myalgia, rash, rigors and/or headache. Eventually, CNS symptoms develop, including dystonia, dyskinesia, tremor, drooling, dysarthria and/or seizures 1.
There are over 70 flaviviruses. The most important include 1-3:
- dengue encephalitis
- Japanese encephalitis virus (Asia)
- Murray Valley encephalitis virus (Australia; New Zealand; Papua New Guinea)
- Powassan virus (North America; Russian Far East)
- Rocio virus (Brazil)
- Saint Louis encephalitis virus (North America; South America)
- tick-borne encephalitis virus
- West Nile virus (Middle East; North America)
MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate all types of encephalitis.
Although the pattern of involvement varies from agent to agent, in general, sites of involvement include 1:
- 1. Hegde AN, Mohan S, Lath N et-al. Differential diagnosis for bilateral abnormalities of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Radiographics. 31 (1): 5-30. doi:10.1148/rg.311105041 - Pubmed citation
- 2. Turtle L, Griffiths MJ, Solomon T. Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses. QJM. 2012;105 (3): 219-23. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcs013 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 3. Solomon T. Flavivirus encephalitis. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004;351 (4): 370-8. doi:10.1056/NEJMra030476 - Pubmed citation