Flexor digitorum superficialis muscle
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Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscle, also known as flexor digitorum sublimis muscle, is a muscle in the second (intermediate) layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm. It splits into four tendons, passes through the carpal tunnel under the flexor retinaculum. At the level of the head of the metacarpal, the flexor digitorum superficialis tendons split and wrap around the flexor digitorum profundus muscle creating an aperture for the flexor digitorum profundus to travel through. This crossing of the tendons can be referred to as the Camper chiasm. The flexor digitorum superficialis tendons rejoin deep to the flexor digitorum profundus and insert at the volar side of the proximal portion of the middle phalanx of the 2nd- 5th digits. It is one of the extrinsic muscles of the hand.
- insertion: via four tendons into the volar aspect of the base of the middle phalanx of digits 2-5 (index, middle, ring and little fingers)
- innervation: median nerve (C7-T1)
- action: flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joints