Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung

Last revised by Dr Daniel J Bell on 06 Jan 2022

Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung refers to an abnormal accumulation of non-malignant lymphocytic aggregates within the lung.

Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung was previously known as pulmonary pseudolymphoma.

Clinical features of focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung can vary from being asymptomatic to various symptoms such as wheeze, shortness of breath, chest pain and cough.

Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung may be solitary or multifocal 1. It is considered a hyperplastic condition. There can be dense alveolar and peribronchial infiltration by numerous mature lymphocytes and plasma cells surrounding reactive lymphoid follicles with true germinal centers within the lung.

Histologically, there can be similarities with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

There can be a range of imaging manifestations of focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung. Typically it is seen as a solitary nodule or a focal area of consolidation 8. Multiple lesions may be seen and lesions span several centimeters in diameter.

Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung is mostly benign but may be difficult to differentiate from more sinister conditions.

Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung may rarely transform into lymphoma.

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