Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Travis Fahrenhorst-Jones had no recorded disclosures.View Travis Fahrenhorst-Jones's current disclosures
At the time the article was last revised Daniel J Bell had no recorded disclosures.View Daniel J Bell's current disclosures
The frontalis muscle (TA: musculus frontalis) is a paired muscle extending from the supraorbital region to the level of the coronal suture. Flat and quadrilateral in shape, it is one of the facial muscles. Along with the occipitalis muscle, it forms the occipitofrontalis muscle due to a common tendon sheet attachment; the galea aponeurotica 1.
- origin: anterior end of the galea aponeurotica
- insertion: superior border of orbicularis oculi muscle and the overlying skin of the eyebrow; there is no attachment to the skull 2
- arterial supply: frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery laterally and the supratrochlear and supraorbital arteries medially 3
- innervation: temporal branches of the facial nerve
- action: pulling of the scalp anteriorly, wrinkling of the forehead skin, and elevation of the eyebrows
The frontalis muscle has clinical significance in relation to facial aesthetics and pathology related to defects of soft tissue and imbalances of motor control. The frontalis muscle is also used in reconstruction; for example frontalis myofascial flaps for cranialization of the frontal sinus 3.
- 1. Keith L. Moore, Arthur F. Dalley, A. M. R. Agur. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. (2013) ISBN: 1451119453 - Google Books
- 2. Chummy S. Sinnatamby. Last's Anatomy, International Edition: Regional and Applied. (2011) ISBN: 9780702048395 - Google Books
- 3. Raveendran S & Anthony D. Classification and Morphological Variation of the Frontalis Muscle and Implications on the Clinical Practice. Aesth Plast Surg. 2020;45(1):164-70. doi:10.1007/s00266-020-01937-2 - Pubmed