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Gasperini syndrome is a rare pontine stroke syndrome that involves the caudal pontine tegmentum.
Classically, the syndrome presents with 1-3:
- involvement of the CN V nucleus (sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve): ipsilateral facial sensory loss
- involvement of the CN VI nucleus (abducens nucleus): ipsilateral impaired eye abduction
- involvement of the CN VII nucleus (facial nucleus): ipsilateral facial palsy and hyperacusis
- involvement of the CN VIII nucleus: vertigo and ipsilateral nystagmus
- involvement of the spinothalamic tract: contralateral hemi-sensory impairment
A lesion of the caudal pons tegmentum is usually caused by an ischemic stroke, usually due to occlusion of either pontine branches of the basilar artery or the long circumferential branch of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery 1,2, but can also be seen due to demyelination or hemorrhage 3.
Lesions are in the caudal pons tegmentum with imaging characteristics depending on underlying cause 2,3.
History and etymology
The syndrome was first described by Ubaldo Gasperini (1880-1918), an Italian physician, in 1912 1,4.
- 1. Tacik P, Alfieri A, Kornhuber M, Dressler D. Gasperini's syndrome: its neuroanatomical basis now and then. (2012) Journal of the history of the neurosciences. 21 (1): 17-30. doi:10.1080/0964704X.2011.568045 - Pubmed
- 2. Iorio R. Teaching NeuroImages: Gasperini syndrome. (2018) Neurology. 90 (3): e261. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004836 - Pubmed
- 3. Krasnianski M, Müller T, Zierz S, Winterholler M. Gasperini syndrome as clinical manifestation of pontine demyelination. (2009) European journal of medical research. 14 (9): 413-4. Pubmed
- 4. Gasperini U. Di un caso di emorragia protuberanziale. Contributo clinico allo studio delle sindromi pontine inferiori. Rif Med (Napoli). 1912;28:880-98.