Citation, DOI & article data
The gastrocnemius muscle is one of the calf muscles (triceps surae) in the superficial posterior compartment of the leg which sits superficial to the much larger soleus muscle. It gives the calf its distinctive two-headed appearance and is a primary plantar flexor.
Its medial border of the lateral head and its lateral border of the medial head forms the inferolateral and inferomedial borders of the popliteal fossa respectively.
- medial head: posterior non-articular surface of the medial femoral condyle
- lateral head: posterior non-articular surface of the lateral femoral condyle
- insertion: calcaneal (Achilles) tendon into mid-posterior calcaneus
- action: plantar flexes the foot and flexes the knee
- arterial supply: sural arteries
- innervation: tibial nerve (sciatic nerve roots S1 and S2)
- antagonist: tibialis anterior
- key relationships
- of entire muscle
- of lateral head
- third head arising from popliteal surface of femur
- sesamoid bone (fabella), commonly in lateral head