Gastrointestinal amyloidosis is relatively common, although symptomatic involvement is more rare. It is diagnosed if there is persistent gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with endoscopic biopsy proven amyloid deposition.
Tends to affect middle-aged and older patients.
Weight loss (most common) and GI bleeding are the main symptoms. Other symptoms include gastro-oesophageal reflux, constipation, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, early satiety, and abdominal pain.
- diffuse wall thickening of the involved segment of bowel
- dilatation depending upon the degree of hypomotility; GI bleeding can also cause dilated bowel loops with fluid levels
- luminal narrowing either due to amyloid infiltration or secondary to ischemia
- infectious enteritis (e.g. Shigella, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, cytomegalovirus, Cryptococcus, pseudomembranous colitis, AIDS)
- bowel ischaemia
- other infiltrating process, e.g. small bowel lymphoma
- other causes of GI bleeding
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