Generalised increased bone density in children

The causes of generalised increased bone density in paediatric patients can be divided accodring to broad categories of cause :

  • skeletal dysplasias
  • metabolic
  • poisoning
    • lead
      • dense metaphyseal bands
      • cortex and flat bones may also be slightly dense
      • modelling deformities later, e.g. flask-shaped femora
    • fluorosis
      • more common in adults
      • usually asymptomatic but may present in children with crippling stiffness and pain
      • thickened cortex at the expense of the medulla
      • periosteal reaction
      • ossification of ligaments, tendons and interosseous membranes
    • hypervitaminosis D
    • chronic hypervitaminosis A
      • not before 1 year of age
      • failure to thrive
      • hepatosplenomegaly
      • jaundice
      • alopecia
      • haemoptysis
      • cortical thickening of long and tubular bones, especially in the feet
      • subperiosteal new bone
      • normal epiphyses and reduced metaphyseal density
      • mandible is not affected
  • idiopathic
    • Caffey disease (infantile cortical hyperostosis)
    • idiopathic hypercalcaemia of infancy : 
      • probably a manifestation of hypervitaminosis D
      • Elfin facies
      • failure to thrive 
      • mental retardation
      • generalized increased density or transverse dense metaphyseal bands
      • increased density of the skull base

There are several mnemonics for dense bones.

See also

Share article

Article Information

rID: 12114
Section: Gamuts
Tag: refs
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Differential diagnosis of generalized increased bone density in children
  • Generalized increased bone density in paediatrics
  • Generalised increased bone density in paediatrics

Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads

Cases and Figures

  • Drag
    Case 1: osteopetrosis
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Pyknodysostosis
    Case 2: pyknodysostosis
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 3: renal osteodystrophy with brown tumours
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 4: infantile cortical hyperostosis
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Prenatal infantil...
    Case 5: infantile cortical hyperostosis
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Drag
    Case 6: fluorosis
    Drag here to reorder.
  • Updating… Please wait.
    Loadinganimation

    Alert accept

    Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

    Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.