Gluten-related disorders are a collection of conditions that are the result of a reaction to the consumption of gluten a protein found in wheat, barley and rye 1.
Gluten-related disorders can be broadly divided into 1,2:
- celiac disease: most common and most widely recognized
- wheat allergy
- non-celiac gluten sensitivity
Celiac disease is a T-cell mediate autoimmune response to gluten-derived polypeptides resulting in a small bowel enteropathy (see celiac disease article).
Many non-gastrointestinal manifestations are, however, also recognized including cerebellar ataxia and polyneuropathy 1,2.
Wheat allergies are due to IgE antibodies and manifestations will depend on the route of exposure: oral ingestion results in wheat food allergy, inhalation may result in baker's asthma or baker's rhinitis or even a hypersensitivity pneumonitis 2,3.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity
This is a poorly defined term but generally refers to the manifestations of a variety of symptoms following gluten exposure that are not, however, immune or allergy-mediated 2.
- 1. Panagiotis Zis, Marios Hadjivassiliou. Treatment of Neurological Manifestations of Gluten Sensitivity and Coeliac Disease. (2019) Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 21 (3): 10. doi:10.1007/s11940-019-0552-7 - Pubmed
- 2. Elli L, Branchi F, Tomba C, Villalta D, Norsa L, Ferretti F, Roncoroni L, Bardella MT. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. (2015) World journal of gastroenterology. 21 (23): 7110-9. doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110 - Pubmed
- 3. Gerfaud-Valentin M, Reboux G, Traclet J, Thivolet-Béjui F, Cordier JF, Cottin V. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a baker: a new cause. (2014) Chest. 145 (4): 856-858. doi:10.1378/chest.13-1734 - Pubmed