Goiter refers to enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can occur from multiple conditions.
The definition of a goiter depends on age and sex; below are the upper limits of normal for thyroid gland volume 1:
- adult males: 25mL
- adult females: 18mL
- 13-14 years: 8-10mL
- 3-4 years: 3mL
- neonate: 0.8-1.5mL
The cause of goiter is diverse 2,3:
- non-toxic simple goiter (e.g. from iodine deficiency)
- multinodular goiter
- Hashimoto thyroiditis
- Grave's disease
- thyroid cancer
- drugs: lithium
- diet: cabbage, sprouts
- depositional disease, e.g. amyloidosis
History and etymology
Goiter derives from the Greek word for shield.
See main article: midline neck mass.