Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of:
- petrous apicitis
- abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal
- retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, due to extension of inflammation into Meckel cave
Common pathogens are Pseudomonas and Enterococcus spp.
History and etymology
It was first described Giuseppe Conte Gradenigo (1859-1926), Italian otolaryngologist in 1907 2,3.
- 1. Swartz JD, Harnsberger HR. Imaging of the temporal bone. George Thieme Verlag. (1998) ISBN:0865777004. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 2. Gradenigo G. Archiv für Ohrenheilkunde. 1907;74 (1): . doi:10.1007/BF01930369
- 3. Jacobsen CL, Bruhn MA, Yavarian Y et-al. Mastoiditis and Gradenigo's Syndrome with anaerobic bacteria. BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord. 2012;12 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/1472-6815-12-10 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation