The term grouped calcifications is used in mammography when relatively few breast microcalcifications reside within a small area. At the least, there must be at least five calcifications are present within 1 cm of each other 4. At the most, it may refer to a larger number of calcifications present within 2 cm of each other 4.
An outdated synonym is calcific cluster or clustered calcification. The term 'grouped' is preferred in the latest BI-RADS manual 4.
Homogeneous, smooth clustered microcalcifications can be due to 2:
- fibrocystic disease (often scattered clusters throughout all quadrants bilaterally)
- lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)
- invasvie lobular carcinoma
Pleomorphic clustered microcalcifications can be due to:
- 1. Eurorad teaching files : Case 420
- 2. deParedes ES. Atlas of Mammography. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. (2007) ISBN:0781764335. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 3. Kerridge WD, Kryvenko ON, Thompson A et-al. Fat Necrosis of the Breast: A Pictorial Review of the Mammographic, Ultrasound, CT, and MRI Findings with Histopathologic Correlation. Radiol Res Pract. 16;2015: 613139. doi:10.1155/2015/613139 - Free text at pubmed - Pubmed citation
- 4. D’Orsi CJ, Sickles EA, Mendelson EB, Morris EA, et al. ACR BI-RADS® Atlas, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. Reston, VA, American College of Radiology; 2013. ISBN:155903016X. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon