Haemoptysis

Dr Aditya Shetty et al.

Haemoptysis refers to coughing out blood. Generally it appears bright red in colour as opposed to blood from gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying aetiology.

Massive heamoptysis is referred to as expectoration of > 100-600 mL of blood over a 24 hour period 6.

In 90% of cases the source of bleeding is the bronchial artery. In the remainder of cases either the pulmonary artery or non - bronchial artery ( for example intercostal or internal mammary) is the source of bleeding. 

Aetiology

The following are the most common causes

Other causes

Rarer causes

Approach to haemoptysis

This approach can be followed for small amounts of blood or streaks of blood in sputum. The underlying cause can be life threatening however its not an emergency.

Bronchoscopy followed by a contrast enhanced CT scan must be carried to detect the cause. The above mentioned common causes and certain uncommon or rare causes must be kept in mind.

Approach to massive haemoptysis
  • examine the patient to rule out a non-pulmonary cause of bleed such from the upper airway and gastrointestinal tract.
  • confirm and localise the site of bleed with bronchoscopy
  • CT imaging may help in characterisations of lesions if time permits
  • arteriography will help localise the vessels involved and also carry out embolisation
  • after the patient is stable further imaging can be carried out and the appropriate measures taken to prevent re-bleed
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Article Information

rID: 28535
Section: Gamuts
Tag: shetty
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Hemoptysis

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Cases and Figures

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    Case 1: from tracheal invasion of thyroid tumour
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    Case 2: NSCLC
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    Case 3: bronchial artery aneurysm
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    Case 4: Goodpasture syndrome
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