Citation, DOI, disclosures and article data
At the time the article was created Craig Hacking had no recorded disclosures.View Craig Hacking's current disclosures
The bones of the hand are:
proximal and distal phalanges
proximal, middle and distal phalanges
As the thumb is structurally different to the other digits of the hand, with different movements and musculature, there is debate as to whether the thumb is considered a finger 2. It can therefore confusing to refer to the fingers by number - is the "first finger" the thumb or the first of the four other digits? For this reason it is advisable to refer to the digits by names given to them rather than by number. From the radial to the ulnar aspect of the hand, they are named as follows:
middle finger or long finger
In the standard anatomical position, the hand is flat and supinated with the fingers spread. This positions the thumb at the lateral aspect of the hand and the little finger at the medial aspect of the hand. It is often easier to use radial and ulnar to refer to the lateral and medial aspects of structures in the hand, as these may be more intuitive without having to remember the anatomical position.
Hand movement is complex and occurs across many joints, including those involved in wrist flexion.
Muscles of the hand can be divided into:
Fascial layers subdivide the underlying musculature into functional compartments; clinical relevance becomes manifest with pathologic increases in pressure resulting in ischemia and/or necrosis to the structures within the myofascial confines such as muscle and peripheral nerves.
The compartments are typically identified as the following 3:
contains abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, ulnar nerve branches
opponens digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, abductor digiti minimi
adductor pollicis compartment
encompasses 3 palmar and 4 dorsal compartments
no musculature, contains ulnar nerve branches
central or mid-palmar compartment
anatomically continuous with the carpal tunnel
contains the second through fourth lumbrical muscles
See these articles for radiographic positioning:
- 1. Chummy S. Sinnatamby. Last's Anatomy. (2018) ISBN: 9780702033940
- 2. Olafsdottir H, Zatsiorsky V, Latash M. Is the Thumb a Fifth Finger? A Study of Digit Interaction During Force Production Tasks. Exp Brain Res. 2005;160(2):203-13. doi:10.1007/s00221-004-2004-0 - Pubmed
- 3. M. Stavrakakis I, E. Magarakis G, H. Tosounidis T. Hand Compartment Syndrome. A Comprehensive Review of Compartment Syndrome [Working Title]. 2021. doi:10.5772/intechopen.95497