Hawkins-Kennedy test

Last revised by Yuranga Weerakkody on 18 Sep 2022

The Hawkins-Kennedy test is a test used to assess the integrity of the shoulder. In this test, the patient is examined whilst sitting with the shoulder flexed to 90° and elbow flexed to 90°. The examiner grasps and supports proximal to the wrist and elbow to ensure maximal relaxation. The examiner and the patient then quickly rotate the arm internally.

The test is considered positive when there is pain located below the acromioclavicular articulation with internal rotation.

History and etymology

It was first described in the 1980s by American Drs. R Hawkins and J. Kennedy.

See also

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