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Headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) syndrome

Headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) syndrome represents a rare condition and consists of recurrent headaches with focal neurological signs, which can include motor, sensory and aphasic symptoms. It is represented by headache attributed to "noninfectious inflammatory disease". Neurological deficits can last up to 7 weeks 4.

The pathophysiology remains unclear although changes in the neurovascular resemble those found in migraine, which are thought to be triggered by an infectious process.

MRI of the brain is usually normal. One case report of abnormalities included grey matter swelling, sulcal enhancement, and hypoperfusion involving unilateral temporal and occipital regions 7.

Treatment is symptomatic and the prognosis is considered excellent.

Clinically can mimic various serious, including life-threatening, diseases, such as stroke and meningoencephalitis.

Article information

rID: 63980
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis syndrome
  • HaNDL syndrome

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