Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor

Last revised by Dr Michael P Hartung on 05 May 2022

Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors (IPT), also known as xanthogranulomas or plasma cell granulomas of the liver, are rare benign hepatic lesions.

Most common in young adults with males affected more than females 7

Etiology is unknown 7

Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor is often seen as a well-circumscribed, encapsulated inflammatory mass. 

Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor is characterized by a large population of polyclonal plasma cells with a variable amount of fibrosis, foamy histiocytes, and other chronic inflammatory cells 2.

Radiological findings of hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor are not characteristic and definitive diagnosis requires needle biopsy (sometimes insufficient 7) or surgery 3.

In most reported cases, they appear as hypoattenuating masses with a variable degree of hepatic enhancement 2

  • T1: hypointense
  • T2: hyperintense
  • T1C+: heterogeneous enhancement 7

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Cases and figures

  • IgG4-related autoimmune cholangitis, pancreatitis, and pseudotumor
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