Hepatic myeloid sarcoma

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is a collection of immature myeloid cells than can present as a mass (or as masses) in the liver. It is a rare complication of haematologic disease.

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is also referred to as "granulocytic sarcoma" or "chloroma".

Myeloid sarcoma occurs in 3-5% of patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). It is also associated with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes 1.

More common locations for myeloid sarcoma are bones, lymph nodes, soft tissues, skin and breasts. The liver is involved less commonly (4% in one study) 2.

May present during remission or relapse of the underlying disease (occurs during remission in 20%) 2.

Consists of myeloid blasts or precursor cells. It sometimes stains green with application of myeloperoxidase, hence the older term "chloroma" ("chloros" is the Greek word for "green").

Imaging features mimic hepatic lymphoma. A presumptive diagnosis of hepatic myeloid sarcoma is made in the setting of a patient with known AML.

CT and MRI
  • more ill-defined margins than hepatic lymphoma
  • more heterogeneous enhancement than hepatic lymphoma
  • may result in biliary obstruction
Nuclear medicine
  • FDG-PET: highly sensitive for detection

Myeloid sarcoma is predictive of a poor outcome for a patient's AML.

Hepatic myeloid sarcoma is treated with chemotherapy or targeted radiotherapy 3.

Hepatobiliary pathology
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Article information

rID: 34163
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • Hepatic granulocytic sarcoma
  • Hepatic chloroma
  • Myeloid sarcoma of the liver
  • Granulocytic sarcoma of the liver
  • Chloroma of the liver
  • Hepatic myeloid sarcomas

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