Herpes simplex (HSV) encephalitis is the most common cause of fatal sporadic fulminant necrotising viral encephalitis and has characteristic imaging findings.
Two subtypes are recognised which differ in demographics, virus, and pattern of involvement. They are 1:
- neonatal herpes encephalitis
- childhood and adult herpes encephalitis
This article concerns itself with the latter. For a discussion of the former, please refer to the article neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis.
Childhood and adult herpes encephalitis are usually due to HSV-1 (90%) with the rest due to HSV-2 5. There is no particular age, sex, or seasonal predilection.
The presentation is unfortunately relatively non-specific consisting of fever, headaches, focal neurological deficits, seizures, and altered or decreased level of consciousness.
Diagnosis is established with PCR of CSF, although the combination of the clinical scenario, CSF demonstrating pleocytosis and elevated protein, and appropriate imaging is usually highly suggestive and permits commencement of treatment.
HSV is an obligatory intracellular virus that enters via infecting nasopharyngeal cells into the sensory branch of lingual nerve then ascends to trigeminal ganglion and remains latent for a lifetime. Reactivation in the case of immunosuppression, trauma, or other stresses can result in fulminant haemorrhagic necrotising encephalitis. HSV has a high affinity for limbic systems with bilateral but asymmetric involvement.
Perivascular cuffs of lymphocytes, large inclusions in neurones and glial cells called "owl's eye", neuronophagia, necrosis and haemorrhage are characteristics of herpes simplex encephalitis.
In the immunocompetent adult patient, the pattern is quite typical and manifests as a bilateral asymmetrical involvement of the limbic system, medial temporal lobes, insular cortices and inferolateral frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are typically spared, helping to distinguish it from a middle cerebral artery infarct.
Extralimbic involvement is more prevalent in children than in adults, seen most commonly in the parietal lobe, with sparing of basal ganglia. Eventually, it results in marked cystic encephalomalacia and volume loss in affected areas.
In immunocompromised patients, involvement can be more diffuse, and more likely to involve the brainstem 5.
Early diagnosis is difficult, and a 'normal' scan should not dissuade from the diagnosis. If findings are present, they typically consist of subtle low density within the anterior and medial parts of the temporal lobe and the island of Reil (insular cortex) 2. If scanned later then the changes may become more apparent and even progress to haemorrhage.
Contrast enhancement is uncommon during the first week of the disease. After that, a patchy low-level enhancement may be seen 5.
Affected areas, however, have a similar appearance regarding signal characteristics:
- may show general oedema in the affected region
- if complicated by subacute haemorrhage there may be areas of hyperintense signal
T1 C+ (Gd)
- enhancement is usually absent early in the disease
- enhancement occurs later and is variable in pattern 5
- gyral enhancement
- leptomeningeal enhancement
- ring enhancement
- diffuse enhancement
- hyperintensity of affected white matter and cortex
- more established haemorrhagic components may the hypointense
- GRE/SWI: may demonstrate blooming if haemorrhagic (rare in neonates, common in older patients)
Treatment and prognosis
Treatment is with intravenous antivirals (e.g. acyclovir), and if appropriate, antiepileptics and agents to reduce intracranial pressure.
Mortality ranges dramatically depending on how early treatment is instituted. Even in patients who are young and otherwise well, and only lethargic still have a mortality of 25%. Older patients or those comatose at the time treatment is started invariably have a much poorer outcome 3. Overall mortality is over 70% with only 2.5% of affected patients every fully recovering 5.
General imaging differential considerations include:
- limbic encephalitis
- gliomatosis cerebri
- status epilepticus
- middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction: typically involves the basal ganglia
- viral encephalitides: many can have very similar appearances and are difficult to separate clinically, and the diagnosis usually requires PCR 4
- neurosyphilis 7
- 1. Leonard JR, Moran CJ, Cross DT et-al. MR imaging of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis in infants and young children: a separate pattern of findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;174 (6): 1651-5. AJR Am J Roentgenol (full text) - Pubmed citation
- 2. Zimmerman RD, Russell EJ, Leeds NE et-al. CT in the early diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1980;134 (1): 61-6. AJR Am J Roentgenol (abstract) - Pubmed citation
- 3. Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP. Clinical neurology. McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange. (2005) ISBN:0071423605. Read it at Google Books - Find it at Amazon
- 4. Solbrig MV, Hasso AN, Jay CA. CNS viruses--diagnostic approach. Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 2008;18 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2007.12.008 - Pubmed citation
- 5. Bulakbasi N, Kocaoglu M. Central nervous system infections of herpesvirus family. Neuroimaging Clin. N. Am. 2008;18 (1): 53-84. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2007.12.001 - Pubmed citation
- 6. Tyler KL. Herpes simplex virus infections of the central nervous system: encephalitis and meningitis, including Mollaret's. Herpes. 2004;11 Suppl 2: 57A-64A. Pubmed citation
- 7. Bash S, Hathout GM, Cohen S. Mesiotemporal T2-Weighted Hyperintensity: Neurosyphilis Mimicking Herpes Encephalitis. American Journal of Neuroradiology. 22 (2): 314. Pubmed
Infections of the central nervous system
- classification by aetiology
- eastern equine encephalitis
- enterovirus rhomboencephalitis
- flavivirus encephalitis
herpes virus family
- herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis
- herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis
- varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis
- Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encephalitis
- cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis
- human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalitis
- HIV CNS manifestations
- HTLV-1-associated myelopathy
- JC virus
- measles encephalitis
- Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis
- rabies encephalitis
- CNS listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)
- CNS nocardiosis (Nocardia spp)
- CNS tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
- Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
- neurosyphilis (Treponema pallidum)
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii)
- cerebral amoebiasis
- cerebral malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
- cerebral sparganosis (Spirometra mansonoides)
- neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium)
- neurohydatidosis (Echinococcus spp)
- neurotoxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
- others or those with possible infectious aetiologies
- classification by location
- meninges and ventricular system
- brain parenchyma, brainstem, and spinal cord
- classification by aetiology