High bone mineral density

A high bone mineral density is one where the bone mineral density (BMD) is usually greater than two standard deviations above what is expected for age. This can sometimes be seen on routine DXA scan assessment. Some authors advocate a definition of a high BMD where the Z-score is >+2.5 to highlight to clinicians the potential for underlying pathology 2.


A high bone mineral density can result from a number of varied mechanisms. It may be associated with conditions with increased fracture risk, or artefacts that themselves do not affect fracture risk but may mask low bone mineral density or in situation where fracture risk may be reduced but other comorbidities may occur.


Generalized acquired

Generalized inherited

Artifactual causes

Article information

rID: 39844
Section: Gamuts
Synonyms or Alternate Spellings:
  • High bone mineral density (BMD)
  • Increased bone mineral density
  • Increased BMD
  • High BMD

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